As Diamonds are made of carbon, their color comes from trace particle impurities that are present in the carbon’s lattice structure as the Diamond grows in the earth mantel.
The most common trace element in diamonds is nitrogen. Nitrogen gives a yellowish or brown tint to the diamond depending on its concentration.
About 98% of all gem-quality natural Diamonds in the world, have nitrogen impurities. Even colorless D-color diamonds can contain trace amounts of nitrogen, yet the concentration is so small that it is not affecting the colorless appearance of the Diamonds.
Natural Fancy Color Diamonds are very rare. Only one out of approximately 10,000 carats is a natural colored diamond.
Within the niche of color diamonds yellows are the most common. Estimations are that they make up to 60% of the colored diamonds market. When nitrogen atoms are spread throughout the Diamond in uniquearrangements,they can createa yellow color that can be classified as fancy yellow.
Yellow Diamondsare the least expensive of the fancy color Diamond group. However, putting things in perspective, it means that approximately 1 out of 16,500 carats that are mined is a yellow diamond – so yes, yellow diamonds are rare.
Blue diamonds are among the rarest with Red and Violet stones.
The blue color is caused by boron impurities in the Diamond. As boron is much less abundant on Earth, blue diamonds are extremely rare.
As for Pink, red, and orange diamonds, scientists believe that their color comes fromadeformation of the crystal lattice structure caused by temperature and pressure changes as these Diamonds formed, or when they were transported to the surface of the Earth.
PurpleDiamonds are probably caused by a combination of changes in the crystal lattice combined with a high concentration of hydrogen.